Operation Kraai - Wikipedia. Operation Kraai (translation: . During this attack, the Dutch managed to capture the Indonesian Republic's temporary capital, Yogyakarta, and seized Indonesian leaders such as Republican President Sukarno. Referred to by the Dutch as the second of two . The purpose was to organise the new Indonesia as a federal state that would remain closely associated with the Netherlands. After some time, however, the Indonesian military, secretly, returned and began guerrilla operations against the Dutch.
This allowed General Simon Hendrik Spoor to counteract Republic actions on the battlefield and diplomatic stage. The Dutch were so confident of this advantage that they held a press conference in Jakarta three days prior to the actual attack. A Republican delegation led by Sukarno would then be flown to New York via New Delhi to advocate the Republic's cause in the United Nations General Assembly. Throughout the Indonesian National Revolution, newly independent India had been sympathetic to the Republic cause which they viewed as a struggle against Western imperialism. Beel was going to give an important speech the next day.
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This news did not reach Yogyakarta because the Dutch had cut the communication line. Meanwhile, General Spoor gave an instruction to begin a full- scale surprise attack against the republic.
The operation was codenamed Operation Kraai (Kraai = Dutch: crow). The attack was also launched without the prior knowledge of the UN Committee of Good Offices. At 0. 4: 3. 0, Dutch aircraft took off from Bandung; heading for Yogyakarta via the Indian Ocean. Meanwhile, the Dutch High Commissioner Beel announced that the Dutch were no longer bound by the Renville Agreement on radio.
The operation began as the Dutch attacked major Indonesian centres in Java and Sumatra. In advance, dummies were landed by the Dutch to draw enemy fire which enabled Dutch fighter planes to strafe the defenders. Thus, with Dutch superiority both in the air and on land, the Dutch army would easily execute a final and decisive victory upon the Indonesian army. However, most of the TNI had left Yogyakarta, defending western Yogyakarta's border from another Dutch military campaign.
The commander General Nasution himself was on an inspection tour in East Java. He would prefer to lose territory but gain extra time to consolidate his army. He also requested Sukarno and other leaders to evacuate from Yogya, and join his guerrilla army. After a cabinet meeting, they refused and decided to stay in Yogyakarta, and keep communicating with UN and KTN envoys. Sukarno also announced a plan for . On that same day most of Yogyakarta fell into Dutch hands, with key targets like the air force and chief- of- staff headquarters razed by both Indonesian .
However, this action was later criticised among Indonesian military circles which regarded it as an act of cowardice by the political leadership. The Sultan himself refused to co- operate with the Dutch administration and rejected mediation attempts by the pro- Dutch Sultan of Pontianak Hamid II. All parts of Indonesia except Aceh and some cantons in Sumatra fell under Dutch control.
Sudirman, who was suffering from tubercolosis, led the guerrillas from his sickbed. Nasution, military commander of Java territories, declared military government in Java and initiated a new guerrilla tactic called Pertahanan Keamanan Rakyat Semesta (Nation in Arms), transforming the Javan countryside into a guerrilla front with civilian support. This was named Emergency Government of the Republic of Indonesia (Indonesian: Pemerintah Darurat Republik Indonesia), based on Bukittinggi, West Sumatra, led by Sjafruddin Prawiranegara. Sudirman radioed his immediate support for this government. Aftermath. The United States threatened to suspend Marshall Plan aid to the Dutch.
This included funds vital for Dutch post- World War II rebuilding that had so far totalled $US 1 billion. The perception that American aid was being used to fund . In January 1. 94. Republican government.
Hostilities eventually ended on 7 May with the signing of the Roem–van Roijen Agreement. See also. 9. 4^ abcdefghijklmn. Kahin (2. 00. 3), p. Cite error: Invalid < ref> tag; name . Darusman (1. 99. 2), p. Kahin (2. 00. 3), p. Zweers (1. 99. 5)^Ricklefs (1.
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